Leadership Positions

Country  Role Occupants
Albania 

First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania Enver Hoxha 1941-1985

  Ramiz Alia 1985-1991
  Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Assembly
Haxhi Lleshi 1953-1982 
    Ramiz Alia 1982-1992
  Chairman of the Council of Ministers
Mehmet Shehu 1954-1981 
    Adil Çarçani 1981-1992
Bulgaria

First Secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party/Head of State
Valko Chervenkov 1949-1954
    Todor Zhivkov 1954-1989
    Petar Mladenov 1989-1990
  President of Bulgaria Todor Zhivkov 1971-1989 
    Petar Mladenov 1989-1990
    Zhelyu Zhelev 1990-1997
  Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bulgaria Valko Chervenkov 1950-1956 
    Anton Yugov 1956-1962
    Todor Zhivkov 1962-1971
    Stanko Todorov 1971-1981
    Grisha Flipov 1981-1986
    Georgi Atanasov 1986-1990
    Andrei Lukanov 1990
    Dimitûr Popov 1990-1991
    Filip Dimitrov 1991-1992
Czechoslovakia

First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Antonín Novotný 1953-1968
    Alexander Dubček 1968-1969
    Gustáv Husák 1969-1987
    Miloš Jakeš 1987-1989
  Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia/Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Czechoslovakia
Antonín Zápotocký 1948-1953
    Viliam Široký 1953-1963
    Jozef Lenárt 1963-1968
    Oldřich Černík 1968-1970
    Lubomír Štrougal 1970-1988
    Ladislav Adamec 1988-1989
    Marián Čalfa 1989-1990
  President of Czechoslovakia
Klement Gottwald 1948-1953
    Antonín Zápotocký 1953-1957
    Antonín Novotný 1957-1968
    Ludvík Svoboda 1968-1975
    Gustáv Husák 1975-1989
    Václav Havel 1989-1992
East Germany

General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany Walter Ulbricht 1950-1971
    Erich Honecker 1971-1989
    Egon Krenz 1989
    Gregor Gysi 1989-1990
  Chairman of the Council of State/Head of State
Wilhelm Pieck 1949-1960 
    Walter Ulbricht 1960-1973
    Willi Stoph 1973-1976
    Erich Honecker 1976-1989
    Egon Krenz 1989
    Manfred Gerlach 1989-1990
    Sabine Bergmann-Pohl 1990
  Chairman of the Council of Ministers of East Germany/Prime Minister of East Germany
Otto Grotewohl 1949-1964 
    Willi Stoph 1964-1973
    Horst Sindermann 1973-1976
    Willi Stoph 1976-1989
    Hans Modrow 1989-1990
    Lothar de Maizière 1990-1990
Hungary

First Secretary of the Hungarian Working Peoples’ Party
Mátyás Rákosi 1945-1956
    Ernő Gerő 1956-1956
  First Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party
János Kádár 1956-1988
    Károly Grósz 1988-1989
    Rezső Nyers 1989-1989
  President of Hungary/Head of State
István Dobi 1952-1967
    Pál Losonczi 1967-1987
    Károly Németh 1987-1988
    Brunó Ferenc Straub 1988-1989
  Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Hungary/Prime Minister of Hungary
István Dobi 1948-1952
    Mátyás Rákosi 1952-1953
    Imre Nagy 1953-1955
    András Hegedüs 1955-1956
    Imre Nagy 1956
    János Kádár 1956-1958
    Ferenc Münnich 1958-1961
    János Kádár 1961-1965
    Gyula Kállai 1965-1967
    Jenő Fock 1967-1975
    György Lázár 1975-1987
    Károly Grósz 1987-1988
    Miklós Németh 1988-1989
Poland

First Secretary of the Polish United Workers’ Party
Bolesław Bierut 1948-1956
    Edward Ochab 1956-1956
    Władysław Gomułka 1956-1970
    Edward Gierek 1970-1980
    Stanisław Kania 1980-1981
    Wojciech Jaruzelski 1981-1989
    Mieczysław Rakowski 1989-1990
  Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Poland/Prime Minister of Poland
Józef Cyrankiewicz 1947-1952
    Bolesław Bierut 1952-1954
    Józef Cyrankiewicz 1954-1970
    Piotr Jaroszewicz 1970-1980
    Edward Babiuch 1980
    Józef Pińkowski 1980-1981
    Wojciech Jaruzelski 1981-1985
    Zbigniew Messner 1985-1988
    Mieczysław Rakowski 1988-1989
    Czesław Kiszczak 1989
  President of the Polish Council of State/Head of State
Aleksander Zawadzki 1952-1964
    Edward Ochab 1964-1968
    Marian Spychalski 1968-1970
    Józef Cyrankiewicz 1970-1972
    Henryk Jabłoński 1972-1985
    Wojciech Jaruzelski 1985-1990
Romania

General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej 1945-1954
    Gheorghe Apostol 1954-1955
    Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej 1955-1965
    Nicolae Ceaușescu 1965-1989
  Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Romania/Prime Minister of Romania
Petru Groza 1947-1952
    Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej 1952-1955
    Chivu Stoica 1955-1961
    Ion Gheorghe Maurer 1961-1974
    Manea Mănescu 1974-1979
    Ilie Verdeț 1979-1982
    Constantin Dăscălescu 1982-1989
  President of the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly/President of Romania/Head of State
Constantin Ion Parhon 1947-1952
    Petru Groza 1952-1958
    Ion Gheorghe Maurer 1958-1961
    Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej 1961-1965
    Chivu Stoica 1965-1967
    Nicolae Ceaușescu 1967-1989
Soviet Union

First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin 1922-1952
    Nikita Khrushchev 1953-1964
    Leonid Brezhnev 1964-1982
    Yuri Andropov 1982-1984
    Konstantin Chernenko 1985-1985
    Mikhail Gorbachev 1985-1991
  Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union
Joseph Stalin 1946-1953
    Georgii Malenkov 1953-1955
    Nikolai Bulganin 1955-1958
    Nikita Khrushchev 1958-1964
    Aleksei Kosygin 1964-1980
    Nikolai Tikhonov 1980-1985
    Nikolai Ryzhkov 1985-1991
  Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union/Head of State
Nikolai Shvernik 1946-1953 
    Kliment Voroshilov 1953-1960
    Leonid Brezhnev 1960-1964
    Anastas Mikoyan 1964-1965
    Nikolai Podgorny 1965-1977
    Leonid Brezhnev 1977-1982
    Vasili Kuznetsov 1982-1983
    Yuri Andropov 1983-1984
    Vasili Kuznetsov 1984
    Konstantin Chernenko 1984-1985
    Vasili Kuznetsov 1985
    Andrei Gromyko 1985-1988
    Mikhail Gorbachev 1988-1991

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
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